BULLETIN 5 (2011)

September 21, 2011

Your Health Bulletin is information from scientific literature to make sense of the right choices for your health.  It is a reminder to consider periodic check-ups of your spine, joint mechanics and appropriate exercise.  Maintenance is better than repair!


  • The knee

  • Chiropractor addition to sports med team

  • Painkillers risk

  • Dawn of Agriculture

  • Life expectancy

  • Probiotics

  • Eating Dirt

  • Ulcerative Colitis

  • Depression

  • Center of gravity—Pain

  • Exercises


Science News


Loss of Motion After Knee Surgery May Increase Osteoarthritis Risk, Research Suggests

ScienceDaily (July 9, 2011) — The onset of osteoarthritis may be related to a loss of knee motion after reconstructive ACL surgery, as noted in new research presented at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine’s Annual Meeting in San Diego, California, July 7-10, 2011. Patients who showed motion limitations after surgery were more likely to develop arthritic changes in the knee.

  • “Our research shows that patients given rehabilitation that emphasizes full motion be obtained and maintained throughout time after surgery have more favorable results on x-rays than patients who lose motion.” said lead researcher K. Donald Shelbourne, MD, Founder, Shelbourne Knee Center.

The study examined data from 780 patients who were at least five years after ACL reconstruction with a patellar tendon graft. In individual follow-ups, patients were evaluated and rated based on knee range of motion tests and radiographs. The percentage of patients with normal radiographs (no arthritic changes in the knee) was 71 percent in patients with normal range of motion compared to 55 percent of patients who showed deficits in motion. In patients who had similar meniscus removal, osteoarthritis was observed more in patients who had motion deficits.


“Something like osteoarthritis can be debilitating,” said Shelbourne, “and our goal is to continually find new ways to help patients avoid such a problem.”


This study adds to previous research identifying major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction, including meniscectomy (removal of the meniscus) and articular cartilage damage.


Story Source:

The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided byAmerican Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.


Comment: The ACL—anterior cruciate ligament and PCL—posterior cruciate ligament stabilize the knee in forward and backward movement. The menscii is cushion like material between the upper and lower leg —the femur and tibia. When muscle joint combinations that impact the knee become too tight then the knee cannot move and stabilize properly-–it isn’ being used correctly. It is this tightness that predisposes us to damage these ligaments and meniscus cushions.


Subsequently, the expression “what you don’t use you lose”  starts the osteoarthritis process in our joints and of course the knee.

The knee is part of a mechanical chain that begins with the pelvis and includes the hip, upper and lower leg as well as the ankle and foot. Any tightness in any of these structures and muscles that move them contributes to knee problems directly and indirectly. That tightneses is most often due to activities of daily living(ADL). Considering that the most common cause of injury is non-contact it is the activities of daily living that is responsible for the subsequent tightnes/poor circulation/ahesion development and degenerative changes in joints(osteoarthritis)—recall that—

Publicly funded research conducted by two chiropractic schools, one in Iowa (Palmer) and one in Chicago (National University) plus bioengineering experts from the University of Iowa studied joint function and pathology using white rats. This research demonstrated major degenerative joint changes over 16 weeks of restricted joint movement. The first degenerative changes were apparent within one week to the low back spinal joints. This research confirmed Finnish medical research published by Videman et al in the journal Clinical Biomechanics 1987 on osteoarthritic knee joints of rabbits after two weeks of joint immobilization. These medical researchers also concluded that restricted joint motion not only causes osteoarthritic changes but also delays the healing process.


So remember when body mechanics tighten up, poor circulation results in inflammation and formation of adhesions in muscles and joints causing poor signal from motion sensors to the brain and subsequent further tightening of muscles and joints by the brain as it cannot see the tissue properly and which creates discomfort and pain. This proces causes immobolization of the tissue and as previously indicated  arthritis. Physical stimulation of the tissue by hand is necessary to manipulate the joints and muscles to release the adhesions and restore motion so motion sensors will signal the brain, stop the pain process and stop the osteoarthritis process.


Again,recall the Australian Rules Football study discussed June 2010, Bulletin 7.


The study noted the addition of a chiropractor to the Sports Medicine team looking after the Australian teams. They had accumulated 15 years of statistics demonstrating that back pain,hamstring injuries,lower limb injuries and knee injuries were being poorly managed. With the addition of a Chiropractor,who corrected both muscles and joints(the intervention group) the most telling statistic was that the average game loss of 28 per season decreased to 1 game loss. The following stats resulted from the addition of the Chiropractor to the Sports Med Team:


The results:  Lower limb muscle strain: sports medicine group plus chiropractic care (intervention group)—injury rate 3.6%

sports medicine group (control group )—injury rate 27.6%

Hamstring injuries: intervention group — injury rate 3.6%

control group —  injury rate 17.2%

Non- contact knee injury: intervention group—  injury rate 3.6%   number of matches missed — 1

control group  —  injury rate 24.1% number of matches missed — 24

Low back pain: at mid-season there was a significant reduction in the intervention group but not the control


Common painkillers linked to increased risk of heart problems


January 11, 2011 PhysOrg.com

Commonly used painkillers for treating inflammation can increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes, according to an analysis of the evidence published in the British Medical Journal today.

The drugs include traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) as well as new generation anti-inflammatory drugs, known as COX-2 inhibitors.




Remember all the common pain killers (NSAIDS) cause a bleed in the gut. This  compromises the function of the villi—the little hairs that sre responsible for secreting digestive enzymes, absorption of nutrients, formation of detox enzymes, formation of gut hormones and most importantly immune function. As well the bleed causes increased permeability (leakiness) of the gut lining which increases the risk for the improper entry of food molecules and microorganisms leading to immune compromise and inflammation. (only food mo;ecules should be absorbed through the villi of the gut cells, but when the junction between the gut cells become permeable then food and microbes leak through which activates the immune system)  The leaking molecules,which will be complexed by the immune system, share a similar configuration to various body tissue(molecular mimicry) which the immune system will then try to eliminate with inflammation— a mechanism for autoimmune disorders. To repair the leakiness created by the drug action or a food reaction,you must stop the food or drug, and use supplemental gut flora.


If you must use a pain med then it is wise to use supplemental gut flora such as Therapeutic Complete available in the office — for more info ask for Office Handouts # 275,277 & 281 explaining the charactertics of the gut microorganisms. Of course it is better to correct the cause of the pain by locating and removing the tightness in muscles and joints by physically manipulating them to release the adhesions and then support with corrective and maintenance exercise. And the sooner you undergo this correction the easier it is, even better is to have body mechanics checked on a regular basis to avoid development of these adhesions —-maintenance is better than repair.


So, why would the NSAID damage the heart or increase the risk of stroke—- it is due to the effect of pain killers on eicossanoids. These are a group of chemicals produced by our bodies in response to the food we eat. The next information session this fall will teach you how to produce the beneficial eicossanoids which prevents heart damage,strokes and lowers inflammation throughout the body—be informed be healthy.


Science News:   Dawn of Agriculture Took Toll On Health


ScienceDaily (June 18, 2011) — When populations around the globe started turning to agriculture around 10,000 years ago, regardless of their locations and type of crops, a similar trend occurred: The height and health of the people declined.


“This broad and consistent pattern holds up when you look at standardized studies of whole skeletons in populations,” says Amanda Mummert, an Emory graduate student in anthropology.


Mummert led the first comprehensive, global review of the literature regarding stature and health during the agriculture transition, to be published by the journal Economics and Human Biology.


Early agriculturalists experienced nutritional deficiencies and had a harder time adapting to stress, probably because they became dependent on particular food crops, rather than having a more significantly diverse diet.”

She adds that growth in population density spurred by agriculture settlements led to an increase in infectious diseases, likely exacerbated by problems of sanitation and the proximity to domesticated animals and other novel disease vectors.


Emory anthropologist George Armelagos, co-author of the review,says “Humans paid a heavy biological cost for agriculture, especially when it came to the variety of nutrients. Even now, about 60 percent of our calories come from corn, rice and wheat.”

In 1984, Armelagos and M. N. Cohen wrote the book, “Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture,” which drew from more than 20 studies to describe an increase in declining health and nutritional diseases as societies shifted from foraging to agriculture.


The book was controversial at the time, but the link between the agricultural transition and declining health soon became widely accepted in what was then the emerging field of bioarcheology.

Journal Reference:


1.Amanda Mummert, Emily Esche, Joshua Robinson and George J. Armelagos. Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: Evidence from the bioarchaeological record. Economics & Human Biology, Volume 9, Issue 3, July 2011, Pages 284-301

Sat Jul 02, 2011 at 09:45 AM PDT




Food for any species must be based on biology not ideology. Our genetic food is the food that humans should be eating—our hunter gatherer food. However, because we as a species have introduced non genetic food, not only since our individual birth but also for varying lengths of time since the advent of agriculture, each of us has slight genetic predisposition to a variety of conditions. As well, we have since our birth acquired unique biological dysfunction due to ingestion of non genetic food. This has resulted in immune compromise. As a result the most important fact about food is whether your immune system tolerates the food—everything else is secondary—whether it is organic, grass/pasture fed in the case of meat,nutritional quality,or quantity of food itself—it is immune tolerance. Subsequently, certain of our genetic foods are not well tolerated. Measurement of basic chemistry of body fluid—urine and saliva —Ph(acidity),Rh2(redox) and R(resistivity) is a simple screen that determines whether you are ingesting the wrong food. For example when the acidity of these body fluids skews in the wrong direction it implies that your digestive system cannot properly metabolize the food and you end up fermenting the carbohydrate,rancidifying the fat ,and putrifying the protein,as well as altering the gut flora which results in the production of a variety of acids which overwhelm our abiltiy to buffer the acids and inhibit our cell enzyme function. If you would like more info on this urine/saliva testing ask for office handout 210 in the office.


Life expectancy drops for women in nearly 25% of U.S. counties


Female life expectancy by county, 2007.
View larger interactive map Source: University of Washington Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation


The Boston Globe‘s Derrick Z. Jackson highlights a study with staggering implications on a range of issues: Life expectancy in the United States is 37th in the world, and in many cases it is moving backwards.


Women in particular lost ground:

Researchers at the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation this month published a county-by-county analysis of life expectancy. From 1987 to 1997, there were 227 counties where female life expectancy dropped. From 1997 to 2007, the number of counties where women’s life expectancy dropped exploded to 737.


Comparisons with the rest of the developed world are more appalling. Of the nation’s 3,147 counties, nearly two-thirds — 2,054 — fell further behind life expectancies for women in the 10 longest-living countries. This is despite the United States having the world’s highest per-capita health spending.

Black men also fare poorly, and the map is telling:

Besides the precarious state of women, life expectancy for black men in two-thirds of the nation’s counties is no better than what it was in other rich countries in the 1950s. The geographical inequality of who lives the longest or least in America is so stark that the maps from the University of Washington study almost perfectly mirror the national maps of obesity and diabetes done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Both maps show the Deep South and Appalachia at the epicenter of the nation’s health collapse.




There are a number of reasons for excess body fat. One accurate means of determining body fat is by bio-impedance testing,refer to office handout 271 on sarcopenia —age related muscle loss. This is an in office test taking about 5 minutes,so if you are interested inquire. The dominant reason for excess body fat is that our culture is eating the wrong food. Mosty weight loss diets result in muscle loss and the individual does not realize this because measurement of weight composition is not being monitored. Muscle loss is considered to be the major reason for unhealthy aging.


The following papers gives some indication on the importance of supplemental gut microorganisms—probiotics. However there is a standards problem in the industry. many products are not properly labeled, have inadequate quantity/quality,and lack ability to survive gastric acidity and thereby are ineffective. That is why our office uses supplemental flora from Klaire Research Labs—look them up online and you  will then understand.


Probiotics may reduce cold/’flu symptoms for male athletes: Study


Daily supplements of probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum may reduce the duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in male athletes, says a new study from Australia.


Competitive male cyclists receiving the daily probiotic supplement had a decrease in symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections of 50 percent over a placebo group, according to results published in the Nutrition Journal.

Study details


Heavy exercise is a physical stressor that has been shown to reduce key immune system components such as natural killer cells, neutrophils, T and B cells. The potential of an immune balancing ingredient for athletes is therefore evident.


For the new study, Prof Cripps and his co-workers recruited 64 male and 35 female competitive cyclists with an average age of 35 and randomly assigned them to receive the probiotic supplement or placebo every day for 11 weeks.

At the end of the study, the researchers report that men displayed a 7.7-fold increase in numbers of Lactobacillus


Men receiving the probiotic supplement reported a significant decrease in symptoms of respiratory illness, including duration and severity

Probiotics may protect infants from respiratory illness

30-Sep-2010 Source: British Journal of Nutrition

Published online ahead of print, FirstView Article, doi: 10.1017/S0007114510003685

“Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in reducing the risk of infections in infancy”

Authors: T. Taipale, K. Pienihakkinen, E. Isolauri, C. Larsen, E. Brockmann, P. Alanen, J. Jokela, E. Soderling

To read the full study, please click here.


The wider implications of gut health

The common cold is a viral infection primarily caused by rhinoviruses. It is the most common infectious disease in humans, and responsible for about 500 million illnesses in the US every year. According to a study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, the common cold and related diseases costs the US about $40 billion every year (2003, Vol. 163, pp. 487-494.).


Probiotics, alone or in combination with prebiotics, have been reported to potentially reduce the incidence of upper respiratory track infections. Indeed, we have already reported on a study from probiotic player Probi, which found that daily supplements with probiotic Lactobacillus strains may reduce the incidence of acquiring the common cold by 12 percent (European Journal of Nutrition, doi: 10.1007/s00394-010-0127-6).


According to the FAO/WHO, probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”


Study details

Led by Turku University’s Teemu Taipale, the researchers recruited 109 one-month-old infants and randomly assigned them to receive either a daily probiotic BB-12-containing tablet or placebo twice a day up until the age of eight months.While no significant differences were observed between the probiotic and placebo groups for gastrointestinal symptoms or use of antibiotics, a significant reduction in respiratory infections was observed in the probiotic-fed infants..


Probiotics show benefits for mother and child


By Stephen Daniells, 17-Dec-2010

Daily supplements of select probiotic strains may reduce the risk of premature birth, and the complications that results from being born pre-term, say two new studies.


According to findings published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei were associated with protection against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating complication of pre-term birth.


A second and separate study, published in the same journal, also found that consumption of probiotic products by women during pregnancy was associated with an 18 percent reduction in the risk of premature delivery.

Both studies add to a small but compelling body of science supporting the potential benefits of specific probiotic strains for mother and child. In an accompanying editorial, the University of Florida’s Jona Rushing and Josef Neu explain: “Premature birth (before 37 weeks of gestation) can cause severe short- and long-term health problems as well as incur high monetary costs.”


“Despite pitfalls of this study, the theoretical basis for use of probiotics remains tenable, and this study provides a signal that after appropriate additional study, probiotics may end up as reasonable adjuncts in the prevention of preterm labor,” they add.


Sources: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2011, Volume 93, Pages 81-86

“Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus casei oral supplementation on necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial”
Authors: T.D. Braga, G. Alves Pontes da Silva, P.I. Cabral de Lira, M. de Carvalho Lima


American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2011, Volume 93, Pages 81-86

“Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery”
Authors: R. Myhre, A.L. Brantsaeter, S. Myking, H.K. Gjessing, V. Sengpiel, H.M. Meltzer, M. Haugen, B. Jacobsson

Editorial: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2011, Volume 93, Pages 3-4

“Probiotics for pregnant women and preterm neonates

Authors: J. Rushing, J. Neu


Science News

Eating Dirt Can Be Good for the Belly, Researchers Find


ScienceDaily (June 4, 2011) — Most of us never considered eating the mud pies we made as kids, but for many people all over the world, dining on dirt is nothing out of the ordinary. Now an extensive meta-analysis forthcoming in the June issue of The Quarterly Review of Biology helps explain why.


According to the research, the most probable explanation for human geophagy — the eating of earth — is that it protects the stomach against toxins, parasites, and pathogens.


The first written account of human geophagy comes from Hippocrates more than 2,000 years ago, says Sera Young, a researcher at CornellUniversity and the study’s lead author. Since then, the eating of earth has been reported on every inhabited continent and in almost every country.

Despite its ubiquity, scientists up to now have been unable to definitively explain why people crave earth.


Some researchers think geophagy is simply a consequence of food shortage. In other words, people eat dirt to ease the pangs of hunger, even though it doesn’t provide any nutritional value. Others have suggested that nutrition is exactly why dirt is consumed.


Geophagy is common even when food is plentiful. Moreover, when people eat dirt they tend to eat only small quantities that are unlikely to fill an empty stomach. Therefore  the hunger hypothesis is unlikely.

The kind of earth people eat most often is a type of clay that contains low amounts of nutrients like iron, zinc, and calcium. Therefore the nutrition hypothesis was also a poor fit.


The protection hypothesis fits the data best. Geophagy is most common in tropical climates where foodborne microbes are abundant.  People often eat earth during episodes of gastrointestinal stress. It’s unlikely the intestinal problems are caused by the dirt itself because the type of clay people usually eat comes from deep in the ground, where pathogens and parasites are unlikely to contaminate it. Plus, people usually boil the clay before eating it.


Journal Reference:


1.Sera L. Young, Paul W. Sherman, Julius Beau Lucks, and Gretel H. Pelto. Why on Earth?: Evaluating Hypotheses about the Physiological Functions of Human Geophagy. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2011; 86: 2

Comment: The gut flora is central to everything. If it is disturbed(one way to measure this is by evaluating the resistivity of urine and saliva which indicates absorption of nutrients—if there is flora imbalance then the reading will be out of range—refer to office nhandout 210 for further info on this test) then it indicates not only ingestion of wrong food but also the need to supplement with good flora such as the therapeutic complete etc from Klaire research that our office uses. The following article on ulcerative colitis requires the utilization of a variety of similar high potency flora to correct the flora disturbance in such conditions in association with significant change in food selection to arrest the inflammation of the lining of the gut which again can be measured by urine saliva testing.


Thursday July 21, 2011


FDA Panel Backs Remicade for Kids with Ulcerative Colitis 

SILVER SPRING, Md — An FDA advisory panel recommends expanding the indication for infliximab (Remicade) to include treatment of ulcerative colitis in children.




The problem is wrong food and disturbed gut flora—both have to be corrected. Immune suppressive drugs like remicade create significant problems: cancer and serious infection risk among many. Again the problem is wrong food and when the correct food is determined it must be adhered to for life otherwise the problem comes back.


Omega-3 Supplements Show Promise in Alleviating Depression


MIAMI, Dec. 8, 2010 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ — A new analysis of the effects of omega-3 essential fatty acids offers the hope of enhanced treatment options for tens of millions of people with depression. Two critical omega-3 essential fatty acids available from certain food or nutritional supplements but not manufactured by the body—Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) — play a role in optimal brain functioning and have antidepressant benefits that have not been fully recognized.  The results were presented today at the annual meeting of the AmericanCollege of Neuropsychopharmacology.


In a meta-analysis of 15 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago, led by John M. Davis, M.D., research professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago and ACNP member, found that patients taking omega-3 with either EPA or a combination of EPA and DHA experienced clear antidepressant benefits. However, across studies, patients taking the pure DHA form of omega-3 saw no antidepressant effect.


“Our analysis clarifies the precise type of omega-3 fatty acid that is effective for people with depression and explains why previous findings have been contradictory,” said Davis. “The EPA predominant formulation is necessary for the therapeutic action to occur. The DHA predominant formulation does not have antidepressant efficacy.”


While scientists noted that omega-3 produces beneficial effects in patients with depression, EPA does not improve mood in people who are not depressed. In several studies, people without depression experienced no difference in mood as a result of omega-3 consumption. In another study Davis and his team found that women with inadequate omega-3 intake were more likely to experience depression during and after pregnancy than women with adequate omega-3 in their diets.


“The findings are unambiguous,” said Davis. “Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant properties, and this effect is ready to be tested in a large study to establish the dose range and to pave the way for FDA approval. In the meantime, omega-3 fatty acids containing EPA could be useful to augment effects of antidepressant medications.  However, scientists caution that patients should always talk with their mental health professional before taking omega-3 fatty acids to alleviate symptoms of depression.”

Approximately 20.9 million American adults suffer from mood disorders, including depression, the world’s fourth leading cause of morbidity and death.


SOURCEAmericanCollege of Neuropsychopharmacology

Comment: Mood disorders are a result of disruption of neurtransmitters signalling due to an inflammatory disturbance in the brain coupled with genetic predisposition—it is a result of the individuals selection of wrong foods. Wrong foods,vary slightly from individual to individual. However the biological diet specific to humans forms the guideline—-that is what our genome successfully adapted—-dominantely animal protein,fresh fruit and vegetables. The individual variation can be evaluated by measuring ph,redox and resistivity of urine and saliva—refer to office handout 210 for further info. The reason for the individual variation from our genetic diet has to do with damage to our gastrointestinal tract and immune system due to exposure to wrong foods from prenatal and birth onward. These wrong foods must be determined,removed and then appropriate gut flora must be restored to repair the gut and regulate the immune response which is responsible for the  inflammatory disturbance in the brain or other target tissues.

EFA’s such as EPA/DHA can aid this process,due to its antiinflammatory effect, but by itself is inadequate. If you wish to learn more of this biological approach to use food as medicine consider the urine/saliva testing and attend wednesday night(TBA) classes at this office regarding food as medicine.


As  example from the scientific literature the one food that has been documented to cause inflammatory damage to the brain or cerebral calcification is gluten. This can result not only in mood disorders but also seizure disorders(epilepsy). Again, it is important to realize that elimination of gluten containing foods is inadequate to manage the problem, other foods that have become intolerant must also be removed as well as earlier indicated the repair of the gut and immune system with appropriate supplemental flora. several papers follow:


Successful treatment of epilepsy and celiac disease with a gluten-free diet
A Mavroudi, E Karatza, T Papastavrou… – Pediatric neurology, 2005 – Elsevier
Gluten-free diet and evolution of the seizures in coeliac disease and epilepsy

E Del Giudice – Epilepsy and other neurological disorders in …, 1997 – books.google.com


Epilepsy and celiac disease: favorable outcome with a gluten-free diet in a patient refractory to antiepileptic drugs

P Canales, VP Mery, FJ Larrondo, FL Bravo… – The …, 2006 – journals.lww.com


Coeliac disease and risk of mood disorders–a general population-based cohort study

JF Ludvigsson, J Reutfors – Journal of affective disorders, 2007 – Elsevier
… with HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 (Sollid, 2000) and is triggered by exposure to gluten (Kagnoff, 2005). … but
is also associated with extraintestinal complications (Green and Jabri, 2003), including
neuropsychiatric disorders (Bushara, 2005 … Bipolar disorder (BD) is another mood disorder (MD …


Untreated celiac disease and development of mental disorders in children and adolescents

PA Pynnonen, ET Isometsa… – …, 2002 – Acad Psychosom Med

major depression and severe behavioralproblems, along with their improvement, were causally relatedto CD and its treatment with a gluten-free diet.


Note: These papers suggest that the above conditions have been adequately addressed  simply by eliminating gluten .But quite often, although the problem may be significantly improved or even completely by being gluten free there are other health issues that have not resolved due to not removing other intolerant foods including gluten free foods.


Individulization of our genetic/biological foods must be determined.

Our Center of Gravity     —   The Pelvis   —  focus   Gluteus Medius Pain


The buttock group of muscles consist of three separate muscles the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimis as shown in the following pics. These muscles participate in complementary  activity to stabilize our mechanical centre of gravity and enable our upper and lower body to move. Mehanical tightness in this area results in adaptive tightness in both the upper and lower body which in turn makes us more susceptible to back ,neck and shoulder/arm/hand strain as well as hip/knee/foot strain. The reasons for tightness in this area and progressive development of adhesions to symptoms of pain/discomfort is due to postural changes from the repetition of daily activities, sitting(we are not designed to sit—much better to squat with heels flat on ground) and a combination of previous injury, lack of and wrong exercise and failure to locate and correct the adhesions/tightness.


Because non-contact injury is the most common mechanism of injury one then realizes that it is the day to day activities which result in the development of these adhesions and susceptibility to pain/discomfort. We do not sense these adhesions until we experience pain/ discomfort which on a 0-10 scale is a 5. When being examined for the presence of these adhesions(present in both muscles and joints) joints will feel tight while being challenged with movement  with or without discomfort and muscles will be painful to probing. It is the presence of pain/discomfort to this physical challenge that indicates mechanical problems and must be corrected by physical manipulation of not only the local joints and muscles but also the secondary compensatory adhesions which the longer being present has been patterned by the brain. That is the brain has grooved in to its neuronal pathways these secondary adaptations to the initial strained area which can perpetuate this initial injury or tightening of the joint muscle complex. The brain is ultimately responsible for these adaptations and sense of pain and the tissues must be repeatedly physically stimulated with joint and muscle stimulation in association with remedial exercise—this takes time. Usually it will take 6-10 visits more or less depending on time of onset of discomfort, the longer it is the longer it takes. A practical method of sensing whether these adhesions are being corrected is simply grading the intensity/presence of the adhesion on a 0-10 scale as a result of stimulation. Anytime one still experiences tightness/discomfort in joint movement or probing of the muscle-joint of more than a 2-3 on that 0-10 scale then further remedial care is necessary and must continue.


Following is further representation of the gluteal muscles along with their trigger point or adhesion referral of pain pattern. These referral patterns of the gluteals overlap and are perpetuated by daily activities,tight sacro-iliac joints and simply because they have not been properly corrected or even not located to be corrected. As well the sacro-iliac joints must be manipulated and appropriate corrective exercises undertaken. Examples of corrective/maintenance exercises also follow and if you are uncertain how to do them ask us to show you when you are in the office for a check -up.


Remember maintenance is better than repair — have your body mechanics checked on a regular basis — see you in the office.



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