This newsletter is provided as a source of information, based on the most current scientific evidence known and or ignored. To know is to ask the right questions; to make the right choice is to take control. Enjoy!
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Antibiotics – Breast
Chronic Neck Pain &
Back Pain Originating
in the Neck
Spinal Manipulation of
the Neck & Stroke
Bone & Joint Disorders
Mood & Food Intro
Mood & Food – Part 1 of
Mood & Media
Proteins, Fats & Carbs
Waist Measure &
Fish & the Heart 7
Drug Errors Rising
Maintenance is better than repair. Chiropractors have always advocated periodic check-ups to screen for mechanical changes to joints and muscles especially spinal joints. For example, one 75 year old patient spoke of how friends questioned being checked and undergoing spinal manipulation for the past 15 years on a regular basis – about once per month. This patient then asked the friends how many had hip replacements, apparently they all did. The patient has not had a hip replacement.
New scientific evidence now supports the chiropractor’s observation that the loss of function and poor joint mechanics can lead to early osteoarthritic changes in joints, changes that later cause pain, then disability and other health problems. (Reference The Chiropractic Report May 04)
Publicly funded research conducted by two chiropractic schools, one in Iowa (Palmer) and one in Chicago (National University) plus bioengineering experts from the University of Iowa studied joint function and pathology using white rats. This research demonstrated major degenerative joint changes over 16 weeks of restricted joint movement. The first degenerative changes were apparent within one week to the low back spinal joints. This research confirmed Finnish medical research published by Videman et al in the journal Clinical Biomechanics 1987 on osteoarthritic knee joints of rabbits after two weeks of joint immobilization. These medical researchers also concluded that restricted joint motion not only causes osteoarthritic changes but also delays the healing process.
Maintenance is better than repair – keep your spinal check-ups.
ANTIBIOTICS – BREAST CANCER RISK?
Science News Feb. 21, 2004 reports on a recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Women who took antibiotics for more than a total of 500 days had about two times the breast cancer risk of women who had taken no antibiotics. The researchers reported that even women who had taken antibiotics for 1 to 100 days had a modest increase in breast cancer risk. It suggests that antibiotics use could increase cancer risk “by disrupting the natural ecosystem of microbes in a person’s normal physiology”. The researchers plan to investigate whether other forms of cancer are associated with antibiotic use.
The best way to deal with infection is to change your internal chemistry so it is not suitable for infectious microbial growth. That means removing inappropriate foods from your diet. For example, natural killer cells are among our immune system’s most important anti microbial defenses especially against virus.Natural killer cells are inhibited by exposure to morphine which is exactly what grain and dairy proteins form – morphine like compounds. I have observed numerous acute and chronic infections, even after repeated antibiotic use clear when inappropriate food is removed. As well, the most effective means of enhancing our immune response in association with food withdrawal is the use of the isopathic preparations Pleo Not, Pleo Quent and Pleo Forte.
New evidence has recently been published from medical experts at the Duke University Evidence Based Practice Center in North Carolina. They concluded that manipulation is effective for headache. This Duke report carries particular prestige as it is one of only twelve such research centers in the United States. The Duke report concluded that manipulation is the only physical treatment with proven effectiveness, and that neck manipulation is very safe which is why it is preferred over drug treatment.
CHRONIC NECK PAIN & MANIPULATION
From the Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine 1999, 22 (1) 22028, authors Khan & Cook studied neck pain from motor vehicle accidents. One hundred patients with chronic neck pain of average duration of 12.7 months were referred for chiropractic manipulations. The patients received an average ofnineteen treatments (range 1-53) over an average time of 4 months (1-48 months).
The researchers concluded that chiropractic manipulation resulted in significant improvement for patients with neck pain and restricted range of neck movement. Another study by Giles and Muller at Townsville General Hospital Queensland Australia compared acupuncture,and anti inflammatory medication (NSAIDS – see Newsletter #5 for side effects of pain medication) – in patients suffering chronic back or neck pain of six years, on average, duration. Neck pain patients experienced significant improvement with manipulation whereasacupuncture and medication did not. This study was published in the Journal of Manipulation & Physiological Therapeutics, 1999 23 (2) 96-100.
BACK PAIN ORIGINATING IN THE NECK
Cervicogenic dorsalgia is the technical term for neck induced back pain. Generally there is no neck discomfort or stiffness, however, when the movement of the individual vertebrae (there are seven in the neck) is checked restricted motion is detected. Subsequently a nerve in the neck (called posterior ramus) is irritated by the poor moving neck joint or joints and referred pain from the neck may be felt in the chest, shoulder, arm and the back.This neck-induced back pain (referral) is typical of people with activities where the arms are beside the body and the hands are used in front of the body and the head is often bent or held forward and held in this posture for extended periods of time such as computer work, ironing, dishwashing, food preparation and carrying objects. A successful example of referred pain from the neck to the upper back involved a sports injury to a teenager. The teen had his upper back manipulated several times by his family medical doctor without relief. The mom then took her son to a chiropractor for a second opinion who quickly recognized the neck joint dysfunction, manipulated it and the back pain went away.The preceding was paraphrased from “The Chiropractic Report” September 2 which was taken from the study “Referred Posterior Thoracic Pain of Cervical Posterior Rami Origin”; a cause of much misdirected treatment. Chiropractic Journal of Australia 32(2):42-51 by Terret & Terret 02.
SPINAL MANIPULATION OF THE NECK & STROKE
The Chiropractic Report Nov.2002 reports that the body is well designed for neck rotation. Results published in the Journal of Manipulative & Physiological
Therapeutics 2002, 25:370-383 from the study “Vertebral Arteries and Cervical Rotation: Modeling and Magnetic Resonance Angiography Studies demonstrate no evidence of stretch of the vertebral artery with neck turning. Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated no narrowing of the neck vertebrae arteries with full neck rotation to the left or right. Suggested reasons why this artery can’t be stretched with neck turning has to do with the curvature in the artery and the compensating movement of the top two vertebrae.
As well, a top Canadian researcher, W. Herzog, from the University of Calgary has just completed a to be published study which demonstrates that the forces created by a chiropractic manipulation of the neck are too small to stretch or damage avertebral artery.
All forms of health care carry an “inherent” risk even when proper procedures are carried out. Such risk varies from negligible to significant. For example, properly prescribed medication by an M.D. in a hospital is the 4th to 6th leading cause of death in addition to all the other side effects of such medication, a significant risk.Anti-inflammatory prescribed drugs for neck pain results in 40,000 hospitalizations per million for gastric bleeding and 4,000 deaths per million, a significant risk. Neck surgery causes 15,600 cases of paralysis per million procedures and 6,500 deaths per million, a significant risk. It is suggested that spinal manipulation of the neck carries a risk of stroke of one in 1-2 to 6 million procedures, a negligible risk. However, stroke due to neck manipulation may be more of an association than causation,similar to a person walking turning their head and having a stroke. Certainly, the results of these two studies suggest that neck manipulation is not a risk factor in stroke.
BONE & JOINT DISORDERS
Bone and joints disorders, including back pain, arthritis, fractures, infections and osteoporosis are the primary reason that patients seek health care. After respiratory disorders, back pain and headache are the most common complaints seen in a general medical practice. Subsequently a good understanding of muscles, bones and joints would be important to medical students. However, the reality, is that musculoskeletal medicine is not part of the core curriculum in medical education.
This deficiency of understanding of bones and joints, although widely recognized has only recently been systematically studied. Two studies, one U.S. authored by Freeman and Bernstein from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine published in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1998 and an Australian study published in the journal Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine, May 2002, discuss this shortcoming in medical training. Both studies tested recent medical graduates for competency in musculoskeletal medicine.
These two studies reported that eight out of ten (78%) students failed. They concluded that “medical school preparation in musculoskeletal medicine is inadequate.”
A number of practical problems have been identified by these studies.(1) no room left in current medical teaching for more musculoskeletal instruction(2) musculoskeletal skills are difficult to acquire in comparison to skills required for life threatening conditions(3) lack of instruction in musculoskeletal medicine is resulting in problems of diagnosis, treatment, and cost. For example, educational inadequacies in musculoskeletal medicine create:a) excessive use of x-rays (90% of which are of little or no value in low back pain) inhibit the development of clinical knowledge and skills to determine the problem.b) a reliance on anti inflammatory medications which create significant digestive pathology instead of correcting the mechanical problemc) unnecessary referrals to specialistsd) a lack of understanding of the injury processe) poor managementThis discussion was paraphrased from The Chiropractic Report September 2002.
Comment:These recent studies point to the overwhelming need for co-operation between the Medical and Chiropractic professions. An understanding of the Chiropractor as a musculoskeletal specialist similar to the dentist as aspecialist in oral health needs to be recognized and implemented.As Dr. P. Manga of the Manga Report into Chiropractic commissioned by the Ontario Minister of Health 1993 concluded: that chiropractors should become the entry point in our health care system for muscle and joint pain especially of the low back – this would save our medical system millions and much unnecessary patient suffering.
MOOD & FOOD INTRODUCTION
Observation is the basis of science. The basis of the scientific method is observation carefully organized. One of the questionnaires our office uses is an objectively tested Medical Screening Questionnaire to measure a person’s symptoms. One of the measured symptoms involves a person’s state of mental health. During my twenty-five years in practice I have observed many patient’s mental health improve after removing inappropriate food from their diet. Yet, how many times do we hear that food has nothing to do with mental health. When health professionals state that mood swings, anger, irritability, anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperactive syndrome have nothing to do with food they are basing that opinion on cultural bias not on science. Unfortunately our public health system does not keep pace with the scientific evidence. There is, I think, a good explanation for this. There is no profit to be made in prevention.
One of the most compelling reasons for prevention is genes. Gene strengths or weaknesses occur as a result of the environment. If we choose the wrong environment the probability is that we will get our family health problems – that’s biology. However, if we choose an appropriate environment then the probability is that we won’t get our family diseases.
Our environment is what we breathe, eat, and contact, modified by our activity level and stress. If we can’t cope with the demands, – distress results which magnifies our weaknesses.
By far the most important environment risk factor is food. This is because of its affect on our gut and its five major regulatory functions: digestion, absorption, communication (gut-brain hormones), biotransformation (detoxification), and immunity. Most of our immune system, about 70% is found in the gut and over 90% of immune complexes in the body are gut derived. Our immune system is there to protect us from that which is foreign or of danger to us – it is our defense against an irritant. It’s response is inflammation. The irritant is mostly from the wrong food passing through the gut wall and tagged by our immune system (immune complexes).
When the irritants or food particles circulate and deposit in tissue, the immune system sees this and responds with inflammation to neutralize it. If it is our brain our state of mind is altered. This negatively affects our ability to learn. Continued exposure to the irritant or inappropriate food results in continued inflammation and damaged neurons. The unbalanced brain chemistry results in confusion, poor memory, anxiety and depression. Life becomes a continuous challenge.The following article on Mood & Food discusses the scientific evidence – (read and re-read)
MOOD & FOOD – PART 1 Of 2 PARTS
Mood & Media
The “Neurobiology of Depression”, Scientific American June 1998 states that depression is the #1 cause of suicide and overall the 9th leading cause of death. The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020 depression will be the #2 cause of death and disability. Genetically, if one parent has depression then a child’s risk is 25%, if two parents the risk is 50%. The male to female incidence is 1-4. Women generally express feelings of worthlessness, helplessness and persistent sad moods whereas men are more likely to be irritable, angry and discouraged.
“Cracking Depression”, an article in the Toronto Star, 6-7-03, stated that 36% of Canadians suffer from depression. A recent publication in Health Affairs 2003 Vol.22#3 confirms that mental illness affects 29% of people living in the United States, Canada, Chile, Germany and the Netherlands.
This means about one third of the Canadian population suffers from some sort of mood disorder, and only about one half of these individuals are diagnosed and treated.
Alarmingly, Science News Sept. 6, 2003 reports that 33% of children by age 16 have developed one or more psychiatric disorders including attention deficit disorder which are then replaced with adult disorders such as depression, panic disorder and substance abuse.
CBC Sounds like Canada 7-10-03 states that antidepressant medications have increased 350% in the last 20 years.
Subsequently, three to five million Canadians are using prescription drugs to control such symptoms as anxiety, guilt, worthlessness, poor memory, fatigue, muddled thinking, trouble with pleasure, trouble with sleeping, trouble with eating and poor or no sex drive. Any or all of this is associated with depression.
One might assume that mental illness is some from of drug deficiency. Most, if not all, popular press and professional journal discussion of mental health problems as indicated by the Toronto Star article 6-7-03, “Cracking Depression” focus solely on talk and drug therapies – no mention of food.
Depression Awareness, an article published in the Medical Post Sept. 2003 states that “Loss of concentration and difficulty sleeping can be early warning signs of depression”. These everyday complaints begin slowly and are often ignored states Dr. M. Tremblay, spokesperson for the Mental Illness Foundation of Quebec. According to the foundation almost 500,000 Canadians miss work each week because of mental ill health – more than 35% of all absences from work. The problem costs Canada about 14 billion a year in treatment, production loss and early death representing almost 14% of all revenues of Canadian companies. Dr. Tremblay encourages early recognition and treatment of depression with talk and drugs. Again, there is no mention of the role of inappropriate food as the source of neurotransmitter problems causing ill mental health.
According to the “Neurobiology of Depression” a biochemical bottleneck results in abnormal brain hormone production and function. The chief hormone involved is serotonin. Other hormones such as corticotropin releasing factor (a stress hormone), dopamine, norepinephrine and male and female hormones have been implicated. Antidepressant drugs attempt to manipulate these brain hormones, in particular, serotonin, resulting in varying degrees of success and failure. This, in part, explains why selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) such as Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, etc., are used so extensively as drug aids in relieving mood disorders. But the drug approach is not such a simple, harmless restoration path.
Medication managed individuals only ever achieve 60-70% of their potential or productivity, in other words, varying degrees of stupor. Considering that research, by Dr. I Kirsch whose analysis of antidepressant medication published in Prevention and Treatment, Vol.5,article 23,July 15, 2002, has demonstrated that antidepressant drugs are not much better than placebo it is paradoxical that our culture persists in this drug approach to mental disorders.
There are two reasons these mood altering medications yield such poor results: one is due to the side effects these drugs create and more importantly, two, is that the biochemical bottleneck is not being corrected.
Antidepressant drugs create symptoms which are mostly the same symptoms for which they are being prescribed. These antidepressant effects include confusion, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, indigestion, constipation, dry mouth, dry eyes, lethargy, loss of appetite and loss of sex drive.
Recent reports in the Medical Post Sept., Nov., and Dec. 03 gives further discussion on the harmful effects of the newer anti-psychotics which include diabetes, weight gain and suicidal thoughts and behavior. Also, the Medical Post Jan. 6, 04 reports that the British Department of Health warns that patients under the age of 18, except in certain circumstances, not be given antidepressants (SSRI’s). It states that “these drug’s harmful side effects, suicidal thoughts and behavior, far outweighs the evidence of effectiveness”.
The Biochemical bottleneck, has to do with the nature of how food affects brain hormones. Not only does the quality and quantity of protein, carbohydrate and fat create the hormones but it also makes them work. However, more importantly, if the source of the food is inappropriate then brain inflammation results and hormones fail.
Proteins, Fats and Carbohydrates
Much has been written about dietary fat, proteins and carbohydrates and how it affects the brain hormones.
Proteins supply the elements or amino acids which make the hormones, in particular serotonin. For example, tryptophan is an amino acid found in high concentration in meat and makes serotonin – the chief mood hormone. The carbohydrates we eat, complex starches or simple sugars (best source is fruit and vegetables) stimulates the production of insulin which by various steps increases the brain’s absorption of tryptophan. Researchers at MIT. Wurtman & Wurtman demonstrated that people who were depressed felt better after a carbohydrate rich meal, whereas those not suffering depression tendencies felt lethargic. This is also the basis for seasonal affective disorder, SAD. With more darkness comes greater production of a brain hormone melatonin, which depletes serotonin. As a result of the lowered serotonin, people feel depressed and eat more carbohydrates to increase serotonin to feel better. Over time this can cause an increase of body fat because of rising insulin levels in response to the carbohydrates. As well, the high insulin alters male and female hormone levels which causes them to be more depressed, a vicious cycle. (An indication that your insulin levels are too high is simply to measureyour waist. Maximum waist measurement should be no greater than 35″ in males and 33″ in females). High insulin levels which is mostly due to excessive carbohydrates leads to an increase in body fat, (malesshould be within 8-18% and females 18-25%). High insulin also leads to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease, blindness, loss of limb, cancer of the breast, colon and prostrate, as well as, altered hormonal regulation. This altered hormone can lead to depression and anxiety disorders. However, the carbohydrate/protein ratio is only a minor player in determining our mood.
Much of the carbohydrate craving/comfort cycle could be avoided if people would start eating more fat. The present cultural low fat dietary myth is part of the reason for the epidemic of anxiety disorders.
Our brains need fat, good fat (refer to Newsletter #1). The production of brain hormones and their function is dependent on the fat we eat. For example, Dr. J. Hibbelin of the U.S. National Institute, as reported in the Medical Post Jan. 20, 2004 notes that when he realized how much of the brain was composed of fat he thought there must be some connection between dietary fats and psychiatric disease. And this is exactly what he is discovering, that populations which consume more omega 3 fatty acids the lower the incidence of bipolar disorder, mania and depression.
In fact, all cell functions are dependent on the fat we eat due to fat’s structural role in the cell membrane. The problem is not only not eating enough fat but more importantly eating the wrong fat. As a culture, we eat too many omega 6 fats which promotes inflammation. (Most seed and vegetable oils have high omega 6 except palm, coconut, olive and canola – canola may be a problem due to its genetic manipulation to remove erucic acid, a heart toxin. Also GMO foods have not been properly tested for human consumption.) As well, we eat harmful trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids found in processed foods (refer to Newsletter #76 – “What’s Cooking – French Fries”) are often labeled as hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated. Most popular snack foods such as chips, fries and crackers, etc. can be up to 50% trans fatty acids. Many harmful effects result from trans fatty acids including increased risk of heart disease and diabetes.
Wrong fat damages the cell membrane which is a fatty acid bi-layer or sandwich responsible for just about everything that goes on in the cell. General body cells are 3% fat whereas the brain is at least 6 times that or 60% dry weight as fat. Our brains need fat to think and feel good (refer to Newsletter #7 on Cholesterol).
For example, “Annals of Clinical Psychiatry” Sept. 2000 discussed the role of omega 3 fatty acids in mood disorders noting abnormalities in cell fat. In other words, mood-disordered individuals had lower levels of omega 3 fats and their metabolites EPA/DHA. As well, the “American Journal of Psychiatry” Mar. 2002 noted that ‘countries with high fish oil consumption have low rates of depressive disorder”. It noted highly significant benefits of the addition of omega 3 fatty acids by week three of treatment compared with placebo. Further, The Clinical Psychiatry Sept. 2000 article provides “evidence, and supports a role in omega 3 fatty acids in schizophrenia, dementia and psychiatric disorders in pregnancy and breast feeding”. (Omega 3 fatty acids are found in vegetables, principally in leafy vegetables, as well as, wild animal protein, grass fed beef, lamb, and cold water wild fish which also contains omega 3 metabolites EPA/DHA and pasture fed poultry.) Food source omega 3 fatty acids are acted upon by liver enzymes to make further compounds, omega 3 metabolites. These compounds are essentialnot only to proper cell membrane functions throughout the body but also as anti-inflammatory agents. The liver’s ability to do this is impaired in the presence of alcohol, sugar, food reactions, trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, lack of protein and stress. Simply put, fat is very important to brain health but again not as important as the source of your food, that is, human appropriate food.
Part 2 – next issue – Human
Appropriate Food and Mood
WAIST MEASURE AND HEART RISK from the Medical Post October 15, 2002
The study published in the October 2002 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition investigated 4388 males and 4631 females, average age 49, for four cardiovascular disease risk factors: Low HDL, high LDL, high blood pressure and high sugar. They found that 48.5% of males and 50.2% of females had one or more of the risk factors. These risk factors also were more closely associated to waist circumference than to BMI.
BMI or body mass index is currently used to promote healthy weight composition levels. The average BMI of the study participants was 26, well within healthy limits. Average waist for males was 96.4 cm (37.6″) and 88.2cm (34.4″) for women. Dr. Zhee, chief investigator, from the Obesity Research Centre at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, suggests cut off limits for waist circumference indicating need for intervention or prevent increased cardiovascular disease risk. Cut offs suggest 90 cm (35″) for males and 83cm (33″) for females.
FISH AND THE HEART
Science News 1-18-03 reports on the findings of a study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association 12-25-02, that one serving a month of fish reduces a man’s risk of ischemic stroke caused by clots, (80% of all strokes are of this type) significantly over non-fish eaters. Eating fish more frequently did not appear to be of further help.
Stroke is a symptom of cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure is the major indicator. Inflammation of blood vessel walls is the reason. This is a protective mechanism due to our immune system responding to danger. Genetics and our environment, primarily wrong food, is the reason for the immune response of inflammation. Wrong foods leak through the gut, deposits in the tissue, i.e., vessel walls and inflames. Fish is a source of omega 3 fatty acid products eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA & DHA). These fatty acid molecules are known to reduce inflammation and thereby lower blood pressure and risk of stroke. This is a much preferred method over the use of ASA which has yielded mixed reviews. Our biology needs good fat at each meal (refer to Newsletter 1 and Newsletter 6) the best is pasture fed animal fat. This fat is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and when acted upon by liver enzymes is converted into EPA and DHA and subsequent anti inflammatory hormones. In order for the liver to do this we must avoid the wrong foods which interfere with these liver enzymes. The best of food is our genetic diet only – meat, vegetables and fruit. Evidence of liver function can bededuced by measuring the resistivity of the saliva which should be 180-220 ohms. Saliva is made from lymph which is mostly produced from the liver and small intestine. Resistivity readings outside the salivary range indicate poor function of these organ systems.
A Spanish study published in the Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, showed significant loss of nutrients in micro-waved broccoli. There was a 97% loss of flavanoids and 74 to 87% loss of antioxidants and other cancer fighting plant chemicals. The researchers found that steaming resulted in the least damage of all cooking methods. The researchers also noted that their findings will most likely apply to other vegetables and foods but this remains to be studied. These findings were reported in the Medical Post November 11, 2003.
It appears that the tastiest and most nutritious method of vegetable preparation is to saute with olive oil or animal fat preferably until veggies are still crisp in texture.
DRUG ERRORS RISING
The Medical Post, Jan. 13, 2004, “Medication errors on rise in U.S. hospitals” states that medication errors in U.S. hospitals increased by 82% in 2002. The report is based on examination of 482 hospitals/health care facilities which reported a total of 192,477 drug errors for 2002. Patients aged 65 and older were twice as likely to experience injury from a medication error than those in other age groups.
These are troubling statistics as such errors are understood to be under-reported. Refer to Newsletter #5 which suggests thatdrug errors are the 4th to 6th leading cause of death. If you must use medication, be informed and use as little as necessary for as short a time as possible. Consider modifying your lifestyle especially by removing pro inflammatory foods to decrease and possibly remove the need for medication.
MAGNETSScience News October 18, 2003 reports roughly 500 million dollars spent annually in the United States on wearable magnets for treating aches and pain. Scientists at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota report on a study of plantar fascitis; bottom of foot pain, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association September 17, 2003. One hundred and one people with sharp foot pain were divided into two groups; 57 received insoles containing magnets and 44 received similar insoles with non-magnetized metal. After eight weeks about 1/3 in each group reported a decrease in pain. The study concluded that shoe inserts containing magnets don’t work any better for bottom of the foot pain than similar inserts without magnets.
Foot pain is easily corrected by manipulation of poorly moving joints and muscles of the pelvis, leg and feet, along with ice and cold and the use of exercise.
BEEF & POULTRY SOURCES
Organic Grass Fed Beef
Murray Bunnet 756-8261
Grass Fed Beef:
David Chambers 433-1200
320 Poodiac Rd., Poodiac
Jeff Pearson 485-1100
Natural Foods, Sussex
Healthy Start, 849-0101
Doug Lounsbury 756-3643
Glenvale (near Peticodiac)
True Foods Organics 459-4333 Charlotte St., Fredericton
Bill Mulder 357-8310
Aura Whole Goods 454-4240
119 Westmorland St.
Kevin/Beth Fullerton 763-2567
Ernie Gorham 763-2825
Sabine Wieczorek 488-3263
Village of Gagetown
FREE RANGE POULTRY
Julie Drummond 832-4855
Route 111, Upperton
Healthy Start Rothesay
Certified Organic Chicken
True Food Organic 459-4333
Larry Slip Gagetown 488-2383 Aura Whole Foods 454-4240
Certified Organic Vegetables
Clark Phillips/Susan Tyler
Marc/Silvi Villeneuve 277-1987
Aura Whole Foods 454-4240
True Food Organics 459-4333